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  • Όνομα κυβέρνηση: Eric Van Buren
  • Αριθμός Μητρώου: 11044-068
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  • There is no honor in coming to prison. It does NOT make you a man.

How to Deal with Medical Issues in Prison

medical-neglect-prisons

Πολλοί άνθρωποι ζητούν μια άλλη ευκαιρία 4 Legal and The Art of Winning Litigation foundations for guidance with their or a loved one’s medical issues in prison. What this blogpost will do is breakdown a proven successful method to properly exhaust and forward your medical claim(s) στο δικαστήριο. This is NOT a treatise on how to file a Prison Litigation Reform Act or Federal Tort Claim Act Claim. Βλέπω Roma v. Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, 344 F.3d 352, 362 (3δ Cir. 2003).

As you may or may not know, prisoners are 2,000-times more likely NOT to receive proper and appropriate medical attention while incarcerated. Ο Φυλακή Νομική Ειδήσεις has horror story upon horror story proving that medical negligence in prison is routine. Women prisoners suffer the worst. Medical issues in prison is an issue we intend to address in 2016 και να πάμε μπροστά.

ΒΉΜΑ 1: Determine Viability of Claim

The best chance for a WINNING claim is one that involves irreparable injury. Irreparable injury is an injury that can not be repaired or that involves continued treatment. The 8th Amendment obligates prison officials to provide adequate medical care. Βλέπω Estelle v. Gamble, 429 Υ.. 92, 103 (1976). [Mental health and Dental care are governed that same as medical care]. Βλέπω Tilley v. Owens, 719 F.Supp. 1256 , 1286 (W.D.PA. 1989); Hoptowit v. Ακτίνα, 682 F.2d 1237, 1253 (9ου Cir. 1982)

Ένα καλό παράδειγμα της ανεπανόρθωτης ζημίας είναι Wakefield v. Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, 2014 Υ.. Dist. ΛΕΞΙΣ 171800 (μ.π.. FLA. Οκτώβριος 16, 2014). This person who was disfigured in prison was a client of The Art of Winning Litigation Foundation. Using The Art of Winning Litigation, we invoked a settlement in this case. A good test to determine the viability of a claim is to ask, is the injury irreparable or can it fix itself without medical intervention? If an injury is not irreparable an does not need medical intervention, we would opine this is NOT a viable claim.

ΒΉΜΑ 2: Prove a “Deliberate Indifference” Occurred

(ένα) Deliberate indifference is a harder standard to prove than mere negligence. It does not matter that prison medical staff was negligent. What matters is that their negligence was the reason for injury AND that it is reasonable to believe a prison medical official should have known, prior to injury, that said injury was possible due to their neglect.

What is legally required is an excessive risk of harm to a prisoner. Βλέπω Farmer v. Brennan, 511 Υ.. 825, 836 (1994). Στη φυλακή εσκεμμένη αδιαφορία is routine. In many prisons every prisoner’s medical gripe is looked at incredulously. This bias creates a culture. This culture has zealots. Επίσης, στη φυλακή, vindictive behavior between prison staff and prisoners is common. These factors are hard to demonstrate legally. When it is a prisoner’s word against a staff member . . . well you can figure that out.

(b) This may sound obvious, but to prove a prison medical claim, one must show an injury occurred. This can done by using circumstantial evidence such as: 1) the inability to perform a specific duty upon release 2) the inability to hold or get a job 3) secondary injuries sustained due to the primary injury. Επιπλέον, άμεση απόδειξη είναι μεγάλη, things such as: 1) Sick αιτήματος κλήσης 2) medical records (Ξέρω ότι είναι πιο εύκολο στα λόγια παρά στην πράξη) 3) παράπονα (να είστε βέβαιος να εξαντλήσει όλες τις διοικητικές προσφυγές) 4) treatment or the lack thereof or the inadequacy of treatment. I know submitting or requesting direct evidence often comes with a price so prisoners have to discern if filing is worth all that comes with it.

(γ) Remember the 8th Amendment prohibits “unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain”. A serious medical need is: 1) Something a doctor would perceive as an important or worthy need, enough so that it would comment on or offer treatment for; 2) a medical condition that affects daily activity or will at sometime; 3) chronic and substantial pain is so obvious even a lay person would easily recognize the necessity of medical attention. Δείτε Adams κατά. ΠΓΑΓ, 61 F.3d 1537, 1543-44 (11ου Cir. 1995).

Οι γυναίκες να έχετε κατά νου ότι το προχωρημένο στάδιο της εγκυμοσύνης, ειδικά το τρίτο τρίμηνο, constitutes a serious medical need. Βλέπω Doe v. Γούσταυος, 294 φά. supp. 2d 1003, 1008 (E.D. WIS. 2003).

(d) Τελικά, υπαλλήλους των φυλακών δείχνουν εσκεμμένη αδιαφορία όταν σας απαγορεύει να κάνει την ιατρική σας κατάσταση είναι γνωστή σε ιατρικό προσωπικό ή αν το προσωπικό είναι ανίκανη
εξετάζω, διαγιγνώσκω, τη θεραπεία και να παραπέμψει την ιατρική κατάσταση. Βλέπω Hoptowit v. Ακτίνα, 682 F.2d 1237, 1252-53 (9ου Cir. 1982).

ΒΉΜΑ 3: Σωστά εξαντλήσει όλα τα διορθωτικά μέτρα

A helpful link to prison and jail grievance policies.

(ένα) This is tricky. The PLRA (Prison Πράξη Litigation Μεταρρύθμιση) sets limits and requirements on prisoners. The PLRA tells you how to file a 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 claim. There is a BIVENS claim to bring against an official acting outside their official duty. A good example is the BIVENS case itself where policeman ran up in a house without probable cause or a search warrant. Βλέπω Bivens, 403 Υ.. 388 (1971). Then there is a FTCA (Federal Tort Claim Act) claim where the United States is the only defendant. Βλέπω CNA v. Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, 535 F.3d 132 (3δ Cir. 2008).

(b) Κάθε κρατούμενος αγωγής αποζημίωσης ή ασφαλιστικά μέτρα με βάση τις συνθήκες του τοκετού τους, μπορούν να ασκήσουν αγωγή βάσει 42 U.S.C. Section 1983. Σύμφωνα με το άρθρο 1983 a prisoner can seek monetary relief, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της ονομαστικής, compensatory and punitive damages. Βλέπω Μέμφις Comm. sch. Dist. σε. Stachura, 477 Υ.. 299, 308 (1986).

(γ) Prisoners having trouble exhausting a claim due to “πράγματα πέρα [τους] ελέγχου” should look at these cases. Jones κατά. Brock, 548 Υ.. 199, 216 (2007) και Dole κατά. Κηροποιός, 483 F.3d 804, 809 (7ου Cir. 2006). These cases offer instances when a prison official interferes with the exhaustion process, or if a claim is asked to be dismissed for failure to exhaust when an attempt to was made.

(d) Physical injury must be shown to prevail on any compensatory claim of damages. Βλέπω Davis v. Σ.Ρ., 158 F.3d 1342, 1349 (D.C. Cir. 1998) και Mitchell v. Κέρατο, 318 F.3d 523, 533-36 (3δ Cir. 2003). Also remember a prisoner’s constitutional rights are De Minimis. Για παράδειγμα: A free citizen MUST be given notice BEFORE their property is seized. In prison this is not required and in certain circumstances you have a right to be given notice AFTER your property has been seized. So keep this is mind when filing BIVENS actions.

(και) NOTICE to all prisoners: FTCA forms for injury or loss are being given out in substitute for BP-8 request. Know the difference. Per Mars v. Hanberry, 752 F.2d 254, 255 (6ου Cir. 1985), once you bring a TORT claim for monetary compensation on this form you are “locked in” to the decision of the Agency. If the Agency does not want to give you a monetary settlement then you can not, επί το πλείστον, appeal this decision to the court. We believe this is a trick because claims of injury or loss that do not have an officer’s acquiescence or a group of prisoners to back it usually lose. Not in all cases but in most cases.

We even know of cases when once a prisoner starts the BP-8 process, then files a FTCA claim (per this form), the administration automatically rips up or denies the
prisoners claims under the PLRA. Recently prisoners have been demanded to file using the FTCA form. Do not be tricked. File your BP-8 go, thru the process, τότε
file your FTCA claim if necessary AFTER you are in court.

ΒΉΜΑ 4: Time Limits

Know the limits. The duration of the statute of limitations applied by federal courts depends on the structure of the state’s statute of limitations in which the claim arose. Βλέπω Wallace v. Kato, 549 Υ.. 384, 387 (2007). If there is a persisting medical condition, one can bring suit anytime during the existence of this condition. FTCA claims must be filed within two years from when the claim arose and 42 USC Section 1983 claims limitations are guided by the state. (See Above).

ΒΉΜΑ 5: How To File

(ένα) Note that we always file claims using what the The Art of Winning Litigation calls fact-based-litigation. We suggest filing the initial BP-8 (Grievance Claim) using a numerical and chronological approach.

For Example:

1. Τον Αύγουστο του 2014, I did not have TB (See Exh. 1)
2. On September 2014, I was placed in the cell with someone who had TB (See Exh. 2)
3. On or about September 2014 to December 2014, I complained to prison officials about being celled w/someone who had TB. (See Affidavit)
4. Τον Ιανουάριο 2015, I was moved to a different cell. (See Exh. 3)
5. Τον Μάρτιο του 2015, I was diagnosed with latent TB (See Exh. 4)
6. Τον Μάιο του 2015, I began taking medication for latent TB (See Exh. 4)
7. Τον Οκτώβριο του 2015, I was diagnosed with liver failure due to the medication I was taking for latent TB. (See Exh. 5)
8. Τον Νοέμβριο 2015, Έγινα άρρωστος με έντονο πόνο στο κάτω μου πίσω & στομάχι.
9. Per, BOP Πολιτική 12345.678 & C.F.R 1999, Δεν τρόφιμος μπορεί να στεγάζονται με οποιοδήποτε άλλο κρατούμενο διαγνώστηκε με φυματίωση. Δείτε Αιχμάλωτος v. Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες 123 F.3d 456 (13ου Cir. 2014).
10. Ζητώ την τιμωρητική και εξισωτική αποζημίωση του ποσού της $500,000.00 δολάρια το καθένα, οφείλεται σε αμέλεια και τον πόνο και τη δυστυχία.

(b) Δεν αποκλίνουν κατά την κατάθεση ενός αρχικού BP-8. Είναι ακριβής, σύντομες και σαφείς. DO NOT blame or make accusations. Απλά αναφέρετε την αξίωσή σας. Αντιδικία θυμωμένος είναι ένα
of the worse ways to litigate. Do not do this, especially when someone has been wronged.

ΒΉΜΑ 6: Filing in Court

(ένα) Once all potential remedies to a claim have been exhausted, it can now brought to court. A federal prisoner housed in a federal prison files to the U.S. District Court where the claim arose.

(b) Do not deviate from the claim made in the Administrative Remedy Process. It must be the same claim, written the same way. This is to ensure credibility. The court will usually assign a Magistrate Judge to oversee initial claims. This judge will make a recommendation to the Article III Judge. The judge will state whether the claim is viable, meritorious or frivolous under the color of law.

(γ) Beware, there will be more than one round of summary dismissal action. Βλέπω Alba v. Montford, 517 F.3d 1249, 1254-55 (11ου Cir. 2008); Abbas v. Dixon, 480 F.3d 636, 639-40 (2d. Cir. 2007). Summary dismissal is when the defendant asks that your claim be dismissed because it has no merit. This is why it is important not to waiver or try to sneak in different claims after your initial filing. This usually results in claims being dismissed. Βλέπω Miller κατά. Donald, 541 F.3d 1091, 1100-01 (11ου Cir. 2008).

PLEASE BEWARE what I have given you is merely an outline of how to properly exhaust your medical claim and bring it into court for the FIRST round of summary motions. If you know someone on prison, we suggest you print this out and send it to them.

“Your health is just as important as your freedom . . . In prison you are in a fight for your life”.

Eric Van Buren
Live form Lockdown

Post-Conviction Strategist
Co-Founder of The TAWL Foundation
Author of The Art of Winning Litigation
Consultant to Bitt of LAW
Consultant to Another Chance 4 Legal

  

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